Chapter 9 - Revival, Recovery, Reform, and Expansion

    Political revival in western Europe in the tenth and eleventh centuries

    1. The decline of invasions and civil disorder
      1. Medieval France was an area of diverse languages and cultures, with the northern counties being the center of French feudalism, and with the king of France king in name only.
    2. In French Normandy the dukes Rollo and William made Normandy a strong territory.
      1. Rollo was given more land in return for allegiance to the king; Rollo and his men became Christianized.
      2. Duke William, his successor, was successful in defeating King Henry, united his Norman nobility, and built many castles at his frontier.
      3. The nobles elected Hugh Capet king in 987, laying the foundation for future political stability.
    3. In England, the victory of Alfred of Wessex over the Danes in 878 slowly led to English unity.
      1. The Dane Canute became King of England and made England part of a large Scandinavian empire.
      2. Danish-Viking assimilation with Anglo-Saxon culture in England was furthered by King Edward the Confessor.
    4. Germany and Italy
      1. The German king Otto halted the Magyars in 955.
      2. The base of Otto's power was his alliance with the church, which he used to weaken the feudal lords.
      3. Otto's coronation in 962 laid the foundation for the future Holy Roman Empire.
      4. Otto relied on the Church to help break the power of the great German lords.
      5. The Italian cities of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa broke Muslim control of Mediterranean trade and experienced great economic growth
      6. The economic importance of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa became a reason for power struggles between the pope and the German Empire.
    5. The Peace of God was the idea and the practice of the church in ending many forms of local violence.
      1. By way of church councils the bishops acted to provide armed protection against thuggish lords and protect peasants, clerics, and merchants.
      2. The "truce of God" was the practice of limiting the number of days when fighting was permitted to 80 days--but this was less effective than the Peace of God.

    Population, climate, and mechanization

    1. The decline in war and plague meant a rise in population.
    2. The warmer climate meant better agricultural production--hence, improved diet and an increase in female fertility.
    3. An ancient energy system, the water mill, was used on a more widespread basis for food production and industry.
    4. Windmills also came into use.

    Revival and reform in the Christian church in the eleventh century

    1. The monastic revival
      1. Monastic activity had declined as the Carolingian Empire disintegrated.
      2. The abbey of Cluny led the way in a tenthcentury monastic revival.
        1. Cluny provided strong leadership for reform of abuses such as simony, for high religious standards, and for sound economic management.
        2. The Cluniac reform spread throughout Europe.
        3. But many monasteries became very rich and lost their spiritual fervor.
      3. To initiate monastic reform, the Cistercians (beginning in 1098) isolated themselves from laymen and elaborate ritual at Citeauz monastery.
        1. Their reform movement centered on high ideals, farming and a simple communal life.
        2. Inspired by the abbot Bernard, the Cistercians founded 525 new monasteries in the twelfth century and had a profound influence on European society.
    2. The reform of the papacy
      1. The tenthcentury papacy was corrupt and materialistic and provided little leadership to the people of Europe.
        1. Pope John XII was appointed pope by his father and concentrated on expanding church land holdings.
        2. Factions in Rome sought to control the papacy for their own gain.
        3. There were many married priests. They were known as nicolaites.
      2. Leo IX made the first sweeping reforms.
      3. Later reforms stipulated that the college of cardinals would henceforth elect the pope.

    The Gregorian revolution in church reform

    1. Pope Gregory VII's ideas for reform of the church
      1. Gregory (Cardinal Hildebrand) believed that papal orders were the orders of God.
      2. He believed in the "freedom of the church"--meaning the end of the practice whereby kings and other secular authorities appointed bishops and other church officials (investiture).
      3. This controversy over investiture provoked a terrible crisis.
      4. Gregory also believed that priests should not marry.
    2. The controversy over lay investiture
      1. The church outlawed the widespread practice of lay investiture (the appointment of church officials by secular authority) in 1075.
      2. Kings disliked this new rule because they used church officials, like monks and bishops, to run state government for free.
      3. Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire protested Pope Gregory's stand on investiture.
        1. Gregory claimed that disobedience to the pope was disobedience to God.
        2. In 1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry.
        3. Powerful nobles favored the excommunication because it released them from obedience to Henry.
      4. Henry scored a temporary victory by submission to the pope at Canossa in 1077.
      5. In 1080 Gregory again excommunicated Henry; in return, Henry invaded Rome.
      6. In 1122, the lay investiture controversy was finally settled in a conference at Worms.
        1. The emperor surrendered the right to choose bishops.
        2. However, lay rulers retained a veto over ecclesiastical choices.
      7. In the long run, the investiture crisis perpetuated the political division of Germany.
        1. In so doing, it encouraged the rise of a very strong noble class.
        2. It also had the effect of emphasizing the distinction between priests and laypeople and between priests and nuns.
    3. The papacy in the High Middle Ages
      1. Pope Urban II laid the foundation for the papal curia, which henceforth administered the church and was its court of law.
        1. The papal curia developed into the court of final appeal for all of Christian Europe.
        2. Most of the cases involved property disputes, ecclesiastical elections, and marriage and annulment.
      2. By the early thirteenth century, papal reform had succeeded, but in the following decades the papal bureaucracy became greedy and indifferent.

    The Crusades of the eleventh and twelfth centuries

    1. The Crusades reflected papal influence in society and the church's new understanding of the noble warrior class.
      1. The Crusades, or holy wars, to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims grew out of the ChristianMuslim conflict in Spain.
      2. Many knights participated in the Crusades, which manifested both the religious and chivalric ideals of medieval society.
    2. Background
      1. The papacy saw a holy war as a way to increase its power and influence--at home and in the East.
      2. The Crusades began with Pope Urban II's plea in 1095 for a crusade to take Jerusalem from the Turks.
    3. Motives and course of the Crusades
      1. The Crusades offered a variety of opportunities for many people.
        1. Religious convictions inspired many.
        2. The lure of foreign travel and excitement was also strong.
        3. The Crusades also gave kings an opportunity to get rid of troublesome knights.
        4. The Crusades encouraged prejudice against European Jews.
      2. The First Crusade (1096) was marked by disputes among the great lords and much starvation and disease.
        1. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099.
        2. Crusader kingdoms were founded in Jerusalem, Edessa, Tripoli, and Antioch.
      3. There were eight papally approved expeditions to the East between 1096 and 1270, but none of the later ones accomplished much.
        1. The Third Crusade was precipitated by the recapture of Jerusalem in 1187.
        2. The Fourth Crusade made the split between the Western and Eastern churches permanent when the Crusaders sacked Byzantium.
      4. Crusades were also fought against the heretical Albegensians and against Emperor Frederick II.
      5. A crusading religious order, the Knights Templars, waged war against pagans in eastern Europe and established a Christian Prussia.
      6. Some women, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, went on Crusades, while many found that the Crusades brought new economic opportunities.
    4. Cultural consequences
      1. The Crusades brought few cultural changes, since strong economic and intellectual ties with the East had already been made.
      2. The long struggle between Christians and Muslims left a legacy of deep bitterness.
      3. However, the Christian West benefited from commercial contact with the Middle East.
      4. As the West's first colonizing movement beyond Europe, the Crusades shaped the identity of the West.
      5. In addition, the Crusades caused the West to dehumanize the enemy--Muslims were described as "filth" and Muslims called Europeans "infidels" and "barbarians."
      6. The Crusades created the notion of European Jews as inhuman monsters--and regularized anti-semitism was born.
        1. But Jewish culture, particularly in urban areas, flourished.
        2. They worked as tradesmen, craftsmen, money changers, and long-distance traders.
        3. Jews became important scholars and physicians.
        4. Spain became the center of a golden age of Jewish culture.

    The expansion of Latin Christendom

    1. Between 1000 and 1300 the frontiers of Europe were populated by peoples of Europe--including many restless knights looking for land.
    2. Northern Europe
      1. An Anglo-Norman takeover of Ulster led to English towns and a new type of church in Ireland.
      2. Similarly, immigrant knights entered Scotland and established feudal society.
      3. Bishoprics were organized in Scandinavian and Baltic regions, by Otto I and others.
    3. Eastern Europe
      1. Pagan peoples (the Balts) in the east and north were conquered and christianized by Otto I and Albert the Bear.
      2. Albert the Bear founded a dynasty in Brandenburg and carried out Ostiedlung to the east.
      3. He pushed his kingdom eastward to the Oder River--ruled by his knights with castles to crush the Slavs.
      4. German knights and monks moved east including Silesia under Duke Boleslaw I.
        1. From Prague in Bohemia missionaries moved to convert Poland.
        2. Many German settlers accompanied these knights and missionaries, and many towns (e.g., Cracow) grew.
    4. Spain
      1. Caliph Rahman III's descendents fell into civil war, thus making a Christian reconquista easier.
      2. Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon conquered Toledo and brought French monks and knights to settle the meseta.
        1. Alfonso VIII crushed the Muslims in 1212 and James of Aragon captured Valencia and turned the chief mosque into a cathedral.
        2. Ferdinand of Castile and Leon captured Cardoba and Seville and converted mosques to churches.
      3. By 1299 Spain had 51 bishoprics and many Cistercian monasteries for military and religious use.
        1. Foreign businessmen came to Spain to take over the many former Muslim towns. Spain became the most urbanized part of Europe.
        2. Huge migration of people accompanied the reconquista.
    5. Toward a Christian society
      1. Cultural unity of new and old parts of Europe came about through and by the Roman papacy.
        1. One religious rite took place in all of Europe.
        2. Europeans identified themselves first and foremost as belonging to the "Christian race."

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