Chapter 26 - The West and the World

    Industrialization and the world economy

    1. The rise of global inequality
      1. The Industrial Revolution caused a great and steadily growing gap between Europe and North America and the non-industrializing regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
        1. In 1750, the average standard of living in Europe was no higher than the rest of the world.
        2. By 1970, the average person in the rich countries had twentyfive times the wealth of the average person in the poor countries.
        3. This gap, seen first between Britain and the rest of Europe, was the product of industrialization.
        4. Only after 1945 did Third World regions begin to make gains.
      2. Some argue that these disparities are the result of the West using science and capitalism; others argue that the West used its economic and political power to steal its riches.
    2. The world market
      1. World trade, which by 1913 was twentyfive times what it had been in 1800, meant an interlocking economy centered in and directed by Europe.
      2. Britain played a key role in using trade to link the world.
        1. It used its empire as a market for its manufactured goods.
        2. For example, Europe bought 50 percent of Britain's cotton textiles.
        3. Britain prohibited its colonies from raising protective tariffs; thus, it was difficult for them to develop their own industries.
        4. Britain sought to eliminate all tariffs on traded goods, and this freetrade policy stimulated world trade.
      3. The railroad, the steamship, refrigeration, and other technological innovations revolutionized trade patterns.
      4. The Suez and Panama canals and modern port facilities fostered intercontinental trade.
      5. Beginning about 1840, Europeans invested large amounts of capital abroad and in other European countries.
        1. Most of the exported capital went to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Latin America, where it built ports and railroads.
        2. This investment enabled still more land to be settled by Europeans, pushing out the native peoples already living there.
    3. The opening of China and Japan
      1. European trade with China increased, but not without the use of force on the part of the Westerners.
        1. China was selfsufficient and had never been interested in European goods, and the Qing Dynasty carefully regulated trade.
        2. British merchants and the Chinese clashed over the sale of opium and the opening of Chinese ports to Europeans.
        3. The opium war in 1839-1842 led to the British acquisition of Hong Kong and the opening of four cities to trade (the Treaty of Nanking).
        4. A second war in 1856-1860 resulted in more gains for Europeans.
      2. Japan also was unwilling to trade or have diplomatic relations with the West.
        1. Japan wanted to maintain its longstanding isolation.
        2. Its persecution of Christians and attack on foreign vessels led to American belief that Japan was blocking America's destined role in the Pacific.
        3. An American fleet under Perry "opened" Japan in 1853 with threats of naval bombardment.
    4. Western penetration of Egypt
      1. Muhammad Ali built a modern state in Turkishheld Egypt that attracted European traders.
        1. He drafted the peasants, reformed the government, and improved communications.
        2. The peasants lost out because the land was converted from selfsufficient farms to large, private landholdings to grow cash crops for export.
      2. Ismail continued the modernization of Egypt, including the completion of the Suez Canal, but also drew the country deeply into debt.
      3. To prevent Egypt from going bankrupt, Britain and France intervened politically.
      4. Foreign financial control provoked a violent nationalistic reaction in Egypt that led to British occupation of the country until 1956.

    The great migration

    1. The greatest migration in history took place when more than 60 million people left Europe between 1815 and 1932.
    2. The pressure of population
      1. The population of Europe more than doubled between 1800 and 1900.
      2. This population growth was the impetus behind emigration.
      3. Migration patterns varied from country to country, reflecting the differing social and economic conditions.
        1. Five times as many people migrated in 1900-1910 as in the 1850s.
        2. Between 1840 and 1920, onethird of all migrants came from Britain; German migration was greatest between 1830 and the 1880s, while Italian migration continued high until 1914.
        3. The United States absorbed about half the migrants from Europe, while in other countries an even larger proportion of their population was new arrivals.
    3. European migrants
      1. Most European migrants were peasants lacking adequate landholdings or craftsmen threatened by industrialization.
        1. Most were young and unmarried, and many returned home after some time abroad.
        2. Many were spurred on by the desire for freedom; many Jews left Russia in the 1880s.
        3. Italian migrants were often small landowning peasants who left because of agricultural decline; many went to Brazil, Argentina, and France; some later returned to Italy.
      2. Ties of friendship and family often determined where people would settle.
      3. Many migrated because they resented the power of the privileged classes.
    4. Asian migrants
      1. Many Asians became exploited laborers.
      2. Asian migration led to racist reactions, such as "whites only" laws in the West.

    Western imperialism

    1. The new imperialism
      1. Between 1880 and 1914, European nations scrambled for political as well as economic control over foreign nations.
      2. This scramble led to new tensions among competing European states and wars with nonEuropean powers.
    2. The scramble for Africa
      1. Prior to 1880, European penetration of Africa was limited.
      2. In South Africa, the British and Dutch Afrikaner whites fought a war over land and gold.
        1. This Boer War (1899-1902) was won by the British, who established the new Union of South Africa.
        2. This state was ruled by the white minority Afrikaners.
      3. British occupation of Egypt and Belgian penetration of the Congo started the race for colonial possessions.
        1. Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers into the Congo and planted the Belgian flag.
        2. Other countries, such as France and Britain, rushed to follow.
      4. The Berlin conference (1884-1885) laid ground rules for this new imperialism.
        1. European claims to African territory had to be based on military occupation.
        2. No single European power could claim the whole continent.
      5. Germany entered the race for colonies and cooperated with France against Britain; the French goal was control of Lake Chad.
      6. The British under Kitchener massacred Muslim tribesmen at Omdurman (1898) in their drive to conquer the Sudan and nearly went to war with the French at Fashoda.
    3. Imperialism in Asia
      1. The Dutch extended their control in the East Indies while the French took Indochina.
        1. But most Asians fled from plantation and gold mine labor--to seek opportunities in towns.
      2. Russia and the United States also penetrated Asia.
        1. Russia moved into the Caucasus and central Asia as well as China.
        2. The United States took the Philippines from Spain and then had to put down revolt led by the Philippine patriots.
    4. Causes of the new imperialism
      1. Economic motives--especially trade opportunities--were important, but in the end general economic benefits were limited because the new colonies were too poor to buy much.
      2. Political and diplomatic factors also encouraged imperialism.
        1. Colonies were believed to be crucial for national security, military power, and international prestige.
        2. Many people believed that colonies were essential to great nations.
      3. Nationalism, racism, and Social Darwinism contributed to imperialism.
        1. The German historian Treitschke claimed that colonies were essential to show racial superiority and national greatness.
        2. Specialinterest groups favored expansion, as did military men and adventurers.
        3. Western technological and military superiority fostered imperialism: e.g., the machine gun, the use of quinine, the steamship, and the telegraph.
        4. Some leaders saw imperialism as a way to suppress social tensions and domestic political conflict at home--that is, to divert attention from problems at home.
      4. Imperialists also felt they had a duty to "civilize" more primitive, nonwhite peoples.
        1. Kipling set forth the notion of the "white man's burden."
        2. Missionaries brought Christianity and education, but also European racism.
    5. Critics of imperialism
      1. The British economist J. A. Hobson set forth the argument that imperialism was the result of capitalism and that only specialinterest groups benefited from colonial possessions.
      2. Others condemned imperialism on moral grounds.
        1. They rebelled against the crude Social Darwinism of the imperialists.
        2. They accused the imperialists of applying a double standard: liberty and equality at home, military dictatorship and discrimination in the colonies.

    Responses to Western imperialism

    1. Imperialism threatened traditional society.
      1. Traditionalists wanted to drive Western culture out and preserve the old culture and society.
      2. Modernizers believed it was necessary to adopt Western practices.
      3. Antiimperialist leaders found inspiration in Western liberalism and nationalism.
    2. Empire in India
      1. India became the jewel of the British Empire; the British East India Company conquered the last independent Indian state in 1848.
      2. The last traditionalist response in India was broken by crushing the Great Rebellion of 1857-1858.
      3. After 1858, India was administered by a white elite that considered itself superior to the Indians.
      4. An Indian elite was educated to aid the British in administration.
      5. Imperialism brought many benefits, including economic development, unity, and peace.
      6. But nationalistic sentiments and demands for equality and selfgovernment grew among the Westerneducated Indian elite.
    3. The example of Japan
      1. In 1853, Japan was a feudal society, with a figurehead emperor and a military governor, the shogun.
        1. The entry of foreigners to Yokohama between 1858 and 1863 led to a wave of antiforeign terrorism.
        2. Western navies attacked, weakening the shogun so that patriotic samurai seized control of the government.
      2. This was called the Meiji Restoration (1867). It was a reaction to American intrusion, unequal treaties, and the humiliation of the shogun (military governor).
      3. The Meiji leaders were modernizers who brought liberal and economic reforms.
        1. They abolished the old decentralized government and formed a strong, unified state.
        2. They declared social equality and allowed freedom of movement.
        3. They created a free, competitive, governmentstimulated economy.
        4. They built a powerful modern navy and reorganized the army.
      4. In the 1890s, Japan looked increasingly toward the German Empire and rejected democracy in favor of authoritarianism.
      5. Japan became an imperial power in the Far East.
        1. Japan defeated China in a war over Korea in 1894-1895.
        2. In 1904, Japan attacked Russia and took Manchuria.
    4. Toward revolution in China
      1. In 1860, the Qing Dynasty appeared to have failed: foreigners had not been repelled, and rebellion and chaos wracked the country.
      2. Then the traditional Qing rulers staged a comeback after the opium wars.
        1. The traditional ruling groups produced effective leaders.
        2. Destructive foreign aggression lessened, and some Europeans helped the Qings.
      3. The Chinese defeat by Japan in 1894-1895 led to imperialist penetration and unrest.
      4. Modernizers hoped to take over and strengthen China.
      5. Boxer traditionalists caused violence (1900-1903) and a harsh European reaction.
      6. Revolutionary modernizers overthrew the Qing Dynasty in 1912.
    5. Summary: In the nineteenth century, the West had entered its third and most important phase of expansion; a powerful antiimperialist struggle would come after the European civil war of 1914-1918 shattered Europe's world position and its selfconfidence.

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