Chapter 21 - The Revolution in Politics, 1775–1815

    Liberty and equality

    1. In the eighteenth century, liberty meant human rights and freedoms and the sovereignty of the people.
      1. Liberals demanded that citizens' rights had no limits except those that assure rights to others.
      2. Revolutionary liberals believed that the people were sovereign.
    2. Equality meant equal rights and equality of opportunity.
      1. But most liberals did not extend such rights to women.
      2. "Equality" pertained to equality of opportunity and legal equality, not economic equality.
    3. The roots of classical liberalism
      1. The Classical Greek and the JudeoChristian traditions liberalism.
      2. Liberalism's modern roots are found in the Enlightenment's concern for human dignity, human happiness on earth, faith in science, personal freedom and legal equality.
      3. These were best expressed by Locke and Montesquieu.
    4. The attraction of liberalism
      1. Liberalism was attractive to the prosperous, welleducated elites.
      2. It lacked popular support because common people were more interested in economic issues and the protection of traditional practices and institutions.

    The American Revolution (1775-1789)

    1. Some argue that the American Revolution was not a revolution at all but merely a war for independence.
    2. The origins of the Revolution
      1. The British wanted the Americans to pay their share of imperial expenses.
        1. Americans paid very low taxes.
        2. Parliament passed the Stamp Act (1765) to raise revenue.
        3. Vigorous protest from the colonies forced its repeal (1766).
      2. Although no less represented than Englishmen themselves, many Americans believed they had the right to make their own laws.
        1. Americans have long exercised a great deal of independence.
        2. Their greater political equality was matched by greater social and economic equality--there was no hereditary noble or serf class.
      3. The issue of taxation and representation ultimately led to the outbreak of fighting.
    3. The independence movement was encouraged by several factors.
      1. The British refused to compromise, thus losing the support of many colonists.
      2. The radical ideas of Thomas Paine, expressed in the bestselling Common Sense, greatly influenced public opinion in favor of independence.
      3. The Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson and passed by the Second Continental Congress (1776), further increased the desire of the colonists for independence.
      4. Although many Americans remained loyal to Britain, the independence movement had widebased support from all sections of society.
      5. European aid, especially from the French government and from French volunteers, contributed greatly to the American victory in 1783.
    4. Framing the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
      1. The federal, or central, government was given important powers--the right to tax, the means to enforce its laws, and the regulation of trade--but the states had important powers too.
      2. The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government were designed to balance one another.
      3. The AntiFederalists feared that the central government had too much power; to placate them, the Federalists wrote the Bill of Rights, which spells out the rights of the individual.
        1. Liberty did not, however, necessarily mean democracy.
        2. Equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or economic wellbeing.
    5. The American Revolution impact on Europe.
      1. It reinforced the Enlightenment idea that a better world was possible. Europeans watched the new country with fascination.

    The French Revolution (1789-1791)

    1. The influence of the American Revolution
      1. Many French soldiers, such as Lafayette, served in America and were impressed by the ideals of the Revolution.
      2. The American Revolution influenced the French Revolution, but the latter was more violent and more influential; it opened the era of modern politics.
    2. The breakdown of the old order
      1. By the 1780s, the government was nearly bankrupt.
      2. The French banking system could not cope with the fiscal problems, leaving the monarchy with no choice but to increase taxes.
    3. Legal orders and social realities: the three estates
      1. The first estate, the clergy, had many privileges and much wealth, and it levied an oppressive tax (the tithe) on landowners.
      2. The second estate, the nobility, also had great privileges, wealth, and power, and it taxed the peasantry for its own profit.
      3. The third estate, the commoners, was a mixture of a few rich members of the middle class, urban workers, and the mass of peasants.
    4. Revisionist historians challenge the traditional interpretation of the origins of the French Revolution.
      1. They argue that the bourgeoisie was not locked in conflict with the nobility, that both groups were highly fragmented.
        1. The nobility remained fluid and relatively open.
        2. Key sections of the nobility were liberal.
        3. The nobility and the bourgeoisie were not economic rivals.
      2. Nevertheless, the old interpretation, that a new social order was challenging the old, is still convincing and valid.
    5. The formation of the National Assembly of 1789
      1. Louis XVI's plan to tax landed property was opposed by the Assembly of Notables and the Parlement of Paris.
      2. Louis then gave in and called for a meeting of the Estates General, the representative body of the three estates.
        1. Twothirds of the delegates from the clergy were parish priests.
        2. A majority of the noble representatives were conservative, but fully a third were liberals committed to major change.
        3. The third estate representatives were largely lawyers and government officials.
        4. The third estate wanted the three estates to meet together to ensure the passage of fundamental reforms.
        5. According to Sieyès in What Is the Third Estate?, the third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation.
      3. The dispute over voting in the Estates General led the third estate to break away and form the National Assembly, which pledged, in the Oath of the Tennis Court, not to disband until they had written a new constitution.
      4. Louis tried to reassert his monarchical authority and assembled an army.
    6. The revolt of the poor and the oppressed
      1. Rising bread prices in 1788-1789 stirred the people to action.
      2. Fearing attack by the king's army, angry Parisians stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
        1. The people took the Bastille, and the king was forced to recall his troops.
        2. This uprising of the masses saved the National Assembly.
        3. All across France peasants began to rise up against their lords.
        4. The Great Fear seized the countryside.
      3. The peasant revolt forced the National Assembly to abolish feudal obligations.
    7. A limited monarchy established by the bourgeoisie
      1. The National Assembly's Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) proclaimed the rights of all citizens and guaranteed equality before the law and a representative government.
      2. Meanwhile, the poor women of Paris marched on Versailles and forced the royal family and the government to move to Paris.
      3. The National Assembly established a constitutional monarchy and passed major reforms.
        1. The nobility was abolished as a separate legal order.
        2. All lawmaking power was placed in the hands of the National Assembly.
        3. The jumble of provinces was replaced by 83 departments.
        4. The metric system was introduced.
        5. Economic freedom was promoted.
      4. The National Assembly granted religious freedom to Jews and Protestants, nationalized the property of the church, and abolished the monasteries.
      5. This attack on the church turned many people against the Revolution.

    World war and republican France (1791-1799)

    1. Foreign reactions and the beginning of war
      1. Outside France, liberals and radicals hoped that the revolution would lead to a reordering of society everywhere, but conservatives such as Burke (in Reflections on the Revolution in France) predicted it would lead to chaos and tyranny.
      2. Wollstonecraft challenged Burke (in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman), arguing that it was time for women to demand equal rights.
      3. Fear among European kings and nobility that the revolution would spread resulted in the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which threatened the invasion of France by Austria and Prussia.
      4. In retaliation, the patriotic French deputies, most of them Jacobins, declared war on Austria in 1792.
        1. But France was soon retreating before the armies of the First Coalition.
        2. A war of patriotic fervor swept France.
      5. In August of 1792 a revolutionary crowd attacked the royal place and the Legislative Assembly imprisoned the king.
    2. The "second revolution" and rapid radicalization in France
      1. The National Convention proclaimed France a republic in 1792.
      2. However, the convention was split between the Girondists and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and Danton.
      3. Louis XVI was tried and convicted of treason by the National Convention and guillotined in early 1793.
      4. French armies continued the "war against tyranny" by declaring war on nearly all of Europe.
      5. In Paris, the struggle between the Girondists and the Mountain for political power led to the political rise of the laboring poor.
      6. The sansculottes--the laboring poor--allied with the Mountain and helped Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety gain power.
    3. Total war and the Terror
      1. Robespierre established a planned economy to wage total war and aid the poor.
        1. The government fixed prices on key products and instituted rationing.
        2. Workshops were nationalized to produce goods for the war effort, and raw materials were requisitioned.
      2. Under Robespierre, the Reign of Terror was instituted to eliminate opposition to the Revolution, and some 40,000 people were jailed or executed.
        1. Robespierre cooperated with the san-culottes in bringing about a state-controlled economy--particularly fixing the price of bread.
        2. An "emergency socialism" system of production and manufacture arose.
        3. They drew on the expolsive power of patriotic support of nation and the war effort.
      3. The war became a national mission against evil within and outside of France, and not a class war.
        1. Ideas of common tradition and democracy combined with the danger of foreign and internal foes to encourage nationalism.
        2. A huge army of patriots was led by young generals who relied on mass attack to overwhelm the enemy.
    4. The Thermidorian reaction and the Directory (1794-1799)
      1. Fear of the Reign of Terror led to the execution of its leader, Robespierre.
      2. The period of the Thermidorian reaction following Robespierre's death was marked by a return to bourgeois liberalism.
        1. Economic controls were abolished; the poor lost their fervor for revolution.
        2. Riots by the poor were put down and rural women brought back the Catholic church and worship.
        3. The middle class wrote another constitution to protect their power; the Directory, a fiveman executive body, was established.
      3. A military dictatorship, under Bonaparte, was established in order to prevent a return to peace and monarchy.

    The Napoleonic era (1799-1815)

    1. Napoleon's rule of France
      1. Napoleon appealed to many, like Abbé Sieyès, who looked for a strong military leader to end the country's upheaval.
      2. Napoleon was named first consul of the republic in 1799.
      3. He maintained order and worked out important compromises.
        1. His Civil Code of 1804 granted the middle class equality under the law and safeguarded their right to own property.
        2. He confirmed the gains of the peasants.
        3. He centralized the government, strengthened the bureaucracy, and granted amnesty to nobles.
        4. He signed the Concordat of 1801, which guaranteed freedom of worship for Catholics.
      4. Napoleon brought order and stability to France but betrayed the ideals of the Revolution by violating the rights of free speech and press and free elections.
        1. Women had no political rights; they lost many gains they had made, and the Napoleonic Code reestablished the power of the male in the family.
        2. There were harsh penalties for political offenses.
    2. Napoleon's wars and foreign policy
      1. He defeated Austria (1801) and made peace with Britain (1802), the two remaining members of the Second Coalition.
      2. Another war (against the Third Coalition--Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Britain) resulted in British naval dominance at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805).
      3. Napoleon used the fear of a conspiracy to return the Bourbons to power to get himself proclaimed emperor in 1804.
      4. The Third Coalition collapsed at Austerlitz (1805), and Napoleon reorganized the German states into the Confederation of the Rhine.
      5. In 1806, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at Jena and Auerstädt.
        1. In the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), Prussia lost half its population, while Russia accepted Napoleon's reorganization of western and central Europe.
        2. Russia also joined with France in a blockade against British goods.
      6. Napoleon's Grand Empire in Europe meant French control of continental Europe.
        1. Napoleon introduced many French laws, abolishing feudal dues and serfdom in the process.
        2. However, he also levied heavy taxes.
        3. French rule sparked patriotic upheavals and nationalism in other countries.
      7. The beginning of the end for Napoleon came with the Spanish revolt (1808) and the British blockade.
      8. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a disaster for Napoleon--over 500,000 died or were taken prisoner.
      9. Napoleon was defeated by the Fourth Coalition (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain) and abdicated his throne in 1814, only to be defeated again at Waterloo in 1815.
      10. The Bourbon dynasty was restored in France under Louis XVIII.


    1. The French revolution left a range of political options and alternative visions of the future--including liberalism, assertive nationalism, radical democratic republicanism, embryonic socialism, and selfconscious conservatism.

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